How to write an essay?

Writing a real test response

Although the real test replication is often referred to as “essay”, it is a different type of text (see writing an essay).


  1. First examine the assignment: what is the task to do? Also note the limitations of the assignment (eg “British culture” does not require the whole world to be treated).
  2. Make a Mind Map or Word List as the basis for design. Also consider what concepts you use in your answer.
  3. If the task involves material, take full advantage of it:
  • “As the table shows, – -.”
  • “The map shows that -.
  • “The picture shows that -.”
  • “The author emphasizes in particular – this differs from the view of another text in that -.”
  1. Design the structure of the answer.
    Getting Started: Define important points for the task.
    Processing: Build the actual part of the answer as required by the assignment, a paragraph from the song.
    Finish: Assemble the main ideas into a summary. However, avoid unnecessary repetition. For example, you can consider the future of the phenomenon.
  2. Check the language.

Remember, a good answer is thorough and logical. The excellent answer to a yo test is often 300 to 400 words long.

Your opinions may increase the value of the answer (depends on the assignment!), But in most cases this is not the case. Opinions must always be justified by factual information.


The report means a smooth, full-length summary. It describes the main content of the base text for a reader who does not already know it. The report is usually done by someone other than the author of the base text, while the author usually makes the abstract.

The purpose of the report is to make it easier for the reader to do the job: he does not need to read the entire original text. The report must therefore be neutral, impartial. The author’s opinions must not come out of it.

  • So referencing is about reporting. You can refer to the text either from word to word (quoting directly), using quotation marks) or indirectly, in your own words. Indirect lending is usually assigned to the following structures:
  • The phrase: The author states that prices have risen.
  • By Author’s Structure: According to the author, prices have risen.
  • sentence response: The author states that prices have risen.
  • simplified description: The author is thinking about price increases.
  • The essence is the reference: the name of the author goes along with the statements.
  • Sillanpää highlights … The editor says … According to the author …

In the commentary, the author presents his own statements. It must be possible to distinguish between the original base text items and the rapporteur’s views.

The length of the report is given in the assignment. The basic rule is that the base text is shortened to at least one third.

  1. Read the assignment carefully and think about the purpose of the report. Who’s reading it? How wide and accurate should it be?
  2. Read the bottom of the pen in hand: Make underline and mind map. Find out the following:
    What is the main text of the base text, ie the main concept?
    What are the upper and lower concepts in the text?
    What are the causes and consequences?
  3. Mark the points you are about to bring up in direct quotes. Remember to use quotes when quoting this.
  4. Organize the items you have picked and design a song break.
  5. At the start, bring up the name of the author of the base text, title, place and time of publication.
  6. Write a paragraph on the song. Remember the referral grip (using the phrases)!
  7. Check that you stay within the desired length. Watch out for jazz.
  8. Looking up. Model: Report by Matti Mäkeläinen on “Parkour”
  9. Check the language and punctuation marks.

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